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GLOMERULONEPHRITIS

Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis, abbreviated GN, is a renal disease (usually of both kidneys) characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys.It may present with isolated hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood or protein in the urine); or as anephrotic syndrome, a nephritic syndrome, acute renal failure, or chronic renal failure. They are categorised into several different pathological patterns, which are broadly grouped into non-proliferative or proliferative types. Diagnosing the pattern of GN is important because the outcome and treatment differs in different types. Primary causes are ones which are intrinsic to the kidney, whilst secondary causes are associated with certain infections (bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens), drugs, systemic disorders (SLE, vasculitis) or diabetes.

GENERAL INFORMATION

IgA nephropathy is the most common type of glomerulonephritis in adults worldwide. It usually presents as macroscopic haematuria (visibly bloody urine). It occasionally presents as a nephrotic syndrome. It often affects young males within days (24-48hrs) after an upper respiratory tract or gastrointestinal infection. Microscopic examination of biopsy specimens shows increased number of mesangial cells with increased matrix (the 'cement' which holds everything together). Immuno-staining is positive for immunoglobulin A deposits within the matrix. Prognosis is variable, 20% progress to ESRF. ACE inhibitors are the mainstay of treatment.

PATHOLOGY

plasma polymeric IgA is increased in IgA Nephropathy, and circulating IgA-containing immune complexes can be found in the blood of some patients. Plasma IgA is usually monomeric and polymeric plasma IgA is broken down in the liver. IgA is normally found in mucus.
There are two forms of IgA and only IgA1 causes nephrogenicity.

  • One is Goodpasture's syndrome, an autoimmune disease whereby antibodies are directed against basal membrane antigens found in the kidney and lungs..

  • The second cause is vasculitic disorders such as Wegener's granulomatosis and polyarteritis. There is a lack of immune deposits on staining, but blood tests are positive for ANCA antibody.

AYURVEDIC TREATMENT

Ayurvedic treatment is very effective in the cases of Glomerulonephritis and it is considered to be a pittaj disease. Some of the medications used are similar to nephritic syndrome while in addition to that a heavy dose of immunomodulator herbs and minerals are required.
Some of the medications very effective in this condition include:-

  • Giloya Satwa

  • Dhatri choornam

  • Chander Prabha Wati

  • Chandaanaadi wati

  • Chandanaasavam

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